A History of Afghanistan

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The Taliban proclaim they are ready for jihad. After weeks of intense fighting with Taliban troops, the Northern Alliance enters Kabul.

The retreating Taliban flee southward toward Kandahar. Hamid Karzai, a royalist and ethnic Pashtun, is sworn in as the leader of the interim government in Afghanistan. Karzai entered Afghanistan after living in exile for years in neighboring Pakistan. At the U. In June, the Loya Jirga, or grand council, elects U.


Karzai chooses the members of his government who will serve until , when the government is required to organize elections. The Loya Jirga adopts a new constitution following input from nearly , Afghans, some of whom participate in public meetings in villages.

The new constitution calls for a president and two vice presidents, but the office of prime minister is removed at the last minute. The official languages, according to the constitution, are Pashto and Dari.


A Brief History of Afghanistan

Also, the new constitution calls for equality for women. Presidential elections are held. More than Karzai is elected with 55 percent of the vote. The nation holds its first parliamentary elections in more than 30 years. Amid continuing fighting between Taliban and al-Qaida fighters and the Afghan government forces, NATO expands its peacekeeping operation to the southern portion of the country.

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After the forces take over from American-led troops, Taliban fighters launch a bloody wave of suicide attacks and raids against the international troops. Obama announces a new strategy for the Afghanistan war that would dispatch more military and civilian trainers to the country, in addition to the 17, more combat troops he previously ordered. The strategy also includes assistance to Pakistan in its fight against militants. President Barack Obama accepts Gen. David Petraeus, head of U. Central Command, as his replacement.


President Hamid Karzai calls for American forces to leave Afghan villages and pull back to their bases after a U. Ashraf Ghani becomes president of Afghanistan in September after two rounds of voting, claims of election fraud and a power-sharing agreement with main rival Abdullah Abdullah.

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Afghanistan - HISTORY

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The overwhelming majority of Afghanistan's people are Muslim, around 99 percent. About 80 percent are Sunni, and 19 percent Shia. The final one percent includes about 20, Baha'is, 3,, Christians. Only one Bukharan Jewish man, Zablon Simintov, remained by All of the other members of the Jewish community fled when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in Until the mids, Afghanistan also had a population of 30, to , Hindus and Sikhs.

During the Taliban regime, the Hindu minority was forced to wear yellow badges when they went out in public, and Hindu women had to wear the Islamic-style hijab. Today, only a few Hindus remain. Afghanistan is a land-locked country bordering on Iran to the west, Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , and Tajikistan to the north, a tiny border with China at the northeast, and Pakistan to the east and south.

A country named Afghanistan

Most of Afghanistan is in the Hindu Kush Mountains, with some lower-lying desert areas. The highest point is Nowshak, at 7, meters 24, feet. The lowest is the Amu Darya River Basin, at meters feet. An arid and mountainous country, Afghanistan has little cropland; a scant 12 percent is arable, and only 0.

The climate of Afghanistan is very dry and seasonal, with temperatures varying by altitude. Kabul's average January temperature is 0 degrees Celsius 32 Fahrenheit , while noon temperatures in July often reach 38 Celsius Fahrenheit. Jalalabad can hit 46 Celsius Fahrenheit in the summer. Most of the precipitation that falls in Afghanistan comes in the form of winter snow.

The nation-wide annual average is only centimeters 10 to 12 inches , but snow drifts in the mountain valleys can reach depths of over 2 meters. Afghanistan is among the poorest countries on Earth. The economy of Afghanistan receives large infusions of foreign aid, totaling billions of U. It has been undergoing a recovery, in part by the return of over five million expatriates and new construction projects.

The country's most valuable export is opium; eradication efforts have had mixed success.

Other export goods include wheat, cotton, wool, handwoven rugs, and precious stones. Afghanistan imports much of its food and energy. Agriculture employs 80 percent of the labor force, industry, and services 10 percent each. The unemployment rate is 35 percent. Afghanistan was settled at least 50, years ago. On this day in , a truck explodes in the Salang Tunnel in Afghanistan, killing an estimated 3, people, mostly Soviet soldiers traveling to Kabul.

Both the British Empire and the Soviet Union were ultimately unable to create a lasting presence in Afghanistan because they Located on the Silk Road trade route linking China with the eastern Mediterranean, ancient Afghanistan was a magnet for settlers from different ethnicities and religions, from Hindus, Muslims and Jews to Buddhists and Zoroastrians.

On October 7, , a U.

A brief history of Afghanistan

Logistical support was provided by other nations including France, Germany, Australia and Canada and, later, troops were In exchange for an end to the disputed Soviet occupation, the United States agreed to end its arms support for the Afghan