SHIFT HAPPENS: The New E-Publishing Paradigm And What It Means For Authors
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Travel time is abridged so the preparation for engagement in the study of literature is abbreviated. The study of literature in original languages continues to be an objective of comparative literature, but the tools of navigation have changed considerably. With the advent of the widespread use of the world wide web in global communication, a sense of urgency permeates university pedagogy and research by approaching to a myriad of "ports. In short, in our age of the digital the study of literatures and cultures comparatively has been impacted by new media and technology which operate on the call of urgency facilitating access to information, whether in scholarship, teaching, or the archival of the digital see Abel ; Edmond.
Digital media impact directly the study of literature across different national and linguistic frameworks to propagate and register literary work and navigate the transnational space, creating closeness between the reader and the text read, even as texts circulate in competition with many other media forms which impress simultaneously different messages to the reader, thus creating a unique contextualization of the literary text not known until the digital text came into existence.
Each reading of the text performed in places distant from each other and from the place of "publication" potentially contributes a literary dialogue nested in cultural dialogues which partake in a global context. The literary event is not isolated, but participates in a multivocal expression of a global community. Varied linguistic frameworks offer also the possibility to engage the literary text from distinct and diverse literary contexts of each region of the world.
Hardware platforms, software applications, and social media not only facilitate the dissemination of ideas, but also stimulate immediate and delayed responses that can create enriching dialogues, endless possibilities of communicating across different national and linguistic frameworks. In this case the text is conceived with a comparative perspective, written for a readership that will read in a second language, thus perpetuating the comparative approach enhanced by the reading of the text. In this "linguistic fan" the absence or limited availability of some languages is more noticeable, and it could prompt readers and writers to work on translating the text into those languages not present in the current "linguistic fan.
Another area of interest and that contributes to this paradigm shift is the merging of the text with images and sound, thus creating a new comparative scenario where the text deploys the literary message in unison with other artistic forms. Here too, pedagogy is enriched by the multimedia presentation that reinforces the comparative nature and behavior of the text.
In consequence the digital offers more choices for the writer and the reader who share a "global perspective," leading to the possibility to exert new levels of manipulation of the texts in format as well as in meaning. Looking at the impact of the digital versus the printed word in teaching and research, the key factor is not necessarily time, but the perception of time as it shapes the same text into different formats. Texts migrating to digital formats respond to the demand to have the widest range of materials available to a broader audience in the most efficient and expedient way.
However, many university faculty experience a sense of being hurried by the digital that exceeds their comfort zone. This situation often creates suspicion that the content of the digital work rather than the format is being subject to manipulation. Schreibman and Hanlon. In this atmosphere of suspicion, digital texts still remain in a position secondary to print texts. In our view, the processes of dissemination should respond to a protocol of verification of the information provided independently of the format, and in this way the resistance to employ new media technology would ease.
Burgess and Hamming. King, Dawson, Batmaz, Rothberg. That is why rather than dismissing the digital in teaching and research, scholars in comparative humanities should assign mechanisms which act as controls of the circulation of knowledge creating hubs with regulations for the dissemination of knowledge and the implementation of technology assisted education. Educators strive to present materials in a dialogic, communicational format through which materials are discovered in a mutually enriching exchange.
In the field of literature, these challenges reinforce the premise that literature is both a communicational venue and a mode of artistic expression.
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In the dialogic mode, the educator conveys knowledge and receives feedback that is enriched and redirected to students, thereby creating full cycles of exchange. Thus the inclusion of technology in curricula is not a choice, but a necessity.
Further, emphasis on teacher assessment drives pedagogy to focus on results and to select effective teaching tools in order to assist each step of the educational process see Boruszko ; also Aesaert et al. We understand the arguments presented above within the following definition and practice of digital humanities:. Digital humanities … is about … the negotiation of culture s —in theory and application—and how cultural practices shape the use of new media and their social significance.
The processing, production, and marketing of cultural products such as music, film, radio, television programs, books, journals, and newspapers determine that today almost all aspects of production and distribution are digitized. Culture today is multimodal as it makes use of technology, as well as symbolic forms … Hence the relevance of the study of intermediality and digitality in various humanities and social sciences disciplines and fields … digital humanities is an emerging field of study both with regard to the construction of theoretical frameworks and their application in the study of culture and the application of new media technology including pedagogy, the publication of scholarship, etc.
At a time when many disciplines and fields in the humanities and social sciences are defined as processes of multi-, inter-, and trans-medial construction, interaction, and practice, the development and study of their encounters take on a primary relevance to scholarship and this perspective is a primary point of departure … Discursive practices including visualities form a complex inter medial network of signifying practices which construct realities rather than simple representations of them.
Socially constructed meaning or what we call and practice as "culture" take place through processes of the negotiation of stories, images, and meanings; that is, through constructed and contextual agreements, power relations, and their authorization and legitimation of social positions and loci. Therefore, the ways inter medial discursive practices are produced, processed, and transmitted are relevant for research and practice and this occurs in digital humanities.
Another outcome of the widespread use of the digital is the development of open-access sources which present the academic community with the task of evaluating them. We argue that parallel to the invention of print, which changed the world by allowing for a wider dissemination of knowledge, today's academia needs to reorganize itself in order to evaluate online sources rather than disregard such as a "secondary" level of scholarship at best. Especially in the humanities senior and tenured scholars tend to treat open-access publication as complements rather than substitutes to the publication of their work in print journals.
This problem is exacerbated by what we term as the 'prestige multiplier effect' which leads to other issues like the high price in elasticity of demand and the savings from subscription to electronic journals not being passed onto consumers. However, as prices continue rising and the demographics shift with more tech-savvy individuals, electronic journals will begin to be viewed as substitutes rather than complements.
With regard to comparative literature and its changing practices from the traditional comparison of two literary texts to a wider practice, Gail Finney writes that. This is an example of the importance of open-access digital publishing as a corollary to the digital paradigm shift in comparative humanities. It is worth noting that the journal is indexed by Thomson Reuters's Arts and Humanities Citation Index AHCI —the latter a matter of importance in most countries in Asia and Europe where scholars do not receive credit for promotion, tenure, and funding unless publication occurs in a Thomson Reuters indexed journal.
This example meshes in several ways with the view that "New electronic technologies radically change the structure of knowledge by allowing instantaneous transformations of knowledge accumulated over centuries.
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Every new discovery and every new invention is immediately reflected in a relevant database" Epstein 6. In consequence, we submit that the use of new media technology in pedagogy— as well as with regard to the "colonialism of knowledge" by publishing scholarship in formats for pay—is unavoidable and digital material can no longer be ignored for use as primary sources.
The question remains for individual faculty members on how to handle such a world without spending a considerable amount of time selecting sources. Then the texts being printed or produced digitally will have the same status, and the digital text will take the lead given the flexibility of use it offers to students as well as to faculty engaged in research. Thus pedagogical material in digital format optimizes education as it provides a network of activities which foster connectivity to other electronic sources and promote the circulation of ideas and information, constructing the ideal scenario for learning those transferable skills which allow students to navigate cultures and literatures around the globe.
Critical thinkers take the most advantage of digital texts, as they can be cited and consulted with much ease thanks to the simple fact that they already belong to a network of resources identified for the field. In this way, students are able to concentrate their efforts in sharpening critical thinking skills while minimizing time needed to retrieve sources, difficult if not impossible for many of them to access unless they are digitalized. Nonetheless, problematic circumstances arise when publishing companies propose an online platform to universities in order to secure the selling of their products.
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Once a platform is adopted in an institution of higher learning, the faculty members are compelled to use the textbooks that support that particular platform. Complex scenarios arise when a professor chooses a textbook with a different platform from the one the university uses, thus introducing parallel platforms which cannot communicate with each other. This monopoly constitutes a high risk factor when faculty have to choose the teaching material according to an institutional, financial contract rather than an academic decision on the right kind of materials for the student population served.
Further, faculty are held hostage to the numberless updates and changes various formats require and these updates are shaping more and more the practice of pedagogy, as technology seems to be one more constituent to serve before we consider the student as the main recipient of the pedagogical trajectory. Enthusiastic university administrators can lead faculty to adopt digital texts which might not be optimized for use in the classroom.
Many a faculty member feels overwhelmed by the technological challenges as they try to incorporate them into their pedagogical routines. In addition, the price that publishing houses—or subscription-based learned journals—assign to digital material is too onerous even after considering the complex publication process of digital resources. There is room for improvement in order to make digital sources available without the high price. To study literature and culture in the digital era is one of the most exciting approaches to learning, especially when studying in comparative humanities.
The world wide web is the natural venue in which to find, to interact with, and to get to know "the other" e. Digital texts inhabit this interactive world, and they participate in a plethora of dialogues which cannot happen using the printed text. They migrate on demand from a source or from one reader to another, facilitating the connection in a fast-paced world. The rushing for connectivity does not imply that the critical thinking process is accelerated but rather stimulated at a higher frequency.
The same amount of dedication is expected independently of the format of sources selected.
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More stimulating research can be accomplished by scholars including students independently or in a cooperative mode as they mobilize themselves. For example, summer courses that allow for travel time for faculty and students constitute a popular venue when digital texts travel with the groups and are brought together with personal photos and journaling and other kinds of documentation gathered. Part of the reason for this educational deficit, is that IS academic programs are slow to respond to the serious changes occurring in most industries today. This article has three outcomes.
The first is to provide an overview of the new breed of information systems including what a business analyst needs to know and what acorresponding academic or training curriculum needs to include.